Logical Framework

(Revised 13.04.2010)

  Title: Building social and ecological resilience in the Lake Chilwa basin under climate change


Objectively Verifiable Indicator (OVI) (incl. gender, HIV)

Means of Verification (MoV)


To improve and sustain livelihoods of the 1.4 million people in the Lake Chilwa basin.

To develop and implement a basin-wide climate change adaptation strategy that builds resilience of people, institutions and natural resources.

Output 1: Capacity of local and district institutions to plan, implement and monitor integrated climate change adaptations increased.

Activity 1.1: Assess capacity of local and district institutions for effective NRM.

By end of Year 1, 3 institutional assessments completed (characteristics, organizational capacity, and needs)

District institutional profiles produced

Stakeholders provide reliable data on institutions

Activity 1.2: Implement capacity development programme based on participatory needs assessment.

By end of Year 1, three training programmes for local and district NRM groups (VNRMCs, Water user assoc, etc.) developed and delivered.

Training Reports

Willingness of groups to participate

Activity 1.3: Facilitate registration of community-based natural resource committees (CBNRC) in hotspots.

By end of year 2, at least 10 CBNRCs registered and functioning.

By the end of year 5, 50 CBNRCs registered and functioning

Functional and registered CBNRCs


Willingness of community to participate.

Activity 1.4: Support and evaluate effectiveness of initiatives to harmonize policy across sectors (including NAPA).

By end of year 2, two most critical inter-sectoral policy conflicts identified and managed in all three district level plans.

Policy briefs and guidelines for integrated management

Willingness of agencies to cooperate

Activity 1.5: Support capacity of training institutions to integrate climate change issues.

By end of year 1, based on needs assessment, curriculum materials developed and integrated in 16 MES Chancellor College courses.

By end of year 1, one specialist group to develop technical training materials established at Chancellor College.

By end of year 5, 3 masters and 1 Ph.D. student trained

Curriculum materials

PhD and MSc Students registered.

Support at CC for curriculum

Output 2: Integrated management plan for Lake Chilwa basin hotspots developed and implemented

Activity 2.1: Identify hot-spots of socio-ecological vulnerability using agreed criteria.

By end of year 1, consultations with each District Council to identify potential hotspots completed.

By end of year 1, one workshop convened for participatory selection of priority hotspots.

By end of year 1, maximum of 10 hotspots identified for management response.

Workshop Report

Updated log frame

Stakeholders agree on criteria

Activity 2.2: Conduct stakeholder analysis to identify constituency for developing management plans.

By end of year 1, one stakeholder analysis conducted in which key stakeholders are identified and categorized

By end of Year 2, 10 stakeholder groups formed and  engaged in management planning

Stakeholder analysis report
Minutes of planning meetings

Willingness of stakeholder to participate

Activity 2.3: Establish basin-scale fora for knowledge exchange and improved planning (incl. historical knowledge, climate change data, market information, lessons learnt …).

Two  basin-scale stakeholder meetings held per year starting in year 2.

From end of Year 1, weekly weather forecasts for basin accessible by mobile phone.

From end of year 2, climate change mitigation and adaptation information delivered by community radio, monthly.

Minutes of meetings

Broadcast transcripts

Willingness of stakeholder to participate

Activity 2.4: For each hot-spot, mobilize village and area development committees to develop integrated management plans.

By end of Year 2, at least one management plan concerning the hotspot approved by District Council.

By end of Year 2, a management plan for Zomba Mountain Forest developed and approved by the Director of Forestry.

Hotspot Management  Plans

Forestry Department Reports

Zomba Mountain Forest Management Plan

Decentralization process is sustained.

Committees are willing to participate

Activity 2.5: For each hot-spot, implement integrated management building on existing management plans.

By end of Year 2, roles and responsibilities for management implementation agreed among stakeholders.

By end year 3, 10 management plans approved and implemented

By year 5, 20 cross-basin learning exchange visits conducted among hotspots starting from year 2.

District work Plans

Forestry Department Reports

District Assembly Reports

Programme progress reports

Decentralization process is sustained

Activity 2.6: Assist stakeholder groups to secure long-term funding using existing (District Assembly) and new (REDD, payment for ecosystem services) mechanisms.

By end of year 1, stakeholder sensitizations on PES completed in each district

By year 2,  1 analysis report of options for benefit sharing completed and disseminated

By year 2, one proposal per hotspot submitted to District Council for funding to sustain management implementation.

By year 3, one proposal submitted for funding to sustain management implementation.

Sensitization Reports

Payment for Ecosystems Services (PES) Analysis Report

Hotspot Proposals


Basin proposal


Activity 2.7: Establish community radio at Chancellor College to disseminate information on climate change and the environment to Basin community.

By end of year 2, 1 community radio established, licensed and functioning.

Community Radio License

Programme Radio Station reports

Broadcast transcripts


No risk associated with this.

Output 3: Vulnerability of Basin households reduced  through improved and diversified  livelihoods and natural resource management

Activity 3.1: Conduct livelihood analysis to understand the adaptive capacity of people and enterprises in the basin.

By end of Year 1, 1 livelihood analysis report (on knowledge of livelihood characteristics, coping strategies and adaptive capacity) produced.

By end of year 2, 1 trend analysis in livelihood characteristics within the basin conducted.

Livelihoods Analysis report

Historical Livelihood trends.

Households willing to give information

Activity 3.2: Analyze climate change, environmental and socioeconomic change perceptions by different community members (men, women, youth, etc) and identify their adaptation constraints.

By end of year 1, one environmental and socio-economic analysis conducted in each hotspot.

Environmental and Socio-economic analysis report.

Focus groups give information

Activity 3.3: Develop basin-scale maps of vulnerability to climate change shocks using secondary data.

By end of Year 1, 10 community participatory vulnerability maps produced and utilized for planning and targeting adaptation strategies

By end of year 2, one GIS vulnerability map developed for the basin.

Vulnerability maps


GIS Database

Maps for appropriate scale available.

Activity 3.4: Strengthen small-scale producers’ and small-scale traders’ access to markets.

By end of year 2, value-chain analyses (VCA) of key commodities (e.g. charcoal, timber, rice and fish) completed.

By end of Year 2, recommendations for improving market chains presented to producers and their development partners

By end of year 4, at least 3 producer/grower associations formed and functioning

By end of year 4, proportion of value of trade in key commodities captured by small-scale producers and traders increased by 20%.

By end of year 3, proportion of farmers accessing urban and international markets increased by 50 %.

VCA Reports






Assessment Report



Willingness of traders to participate.

Activity 3.5: Conduct Exchange visits to learn about innovations, best practices, benefits of collective action (e.g. to Chia Lagoon; DAPP Conservation Farming Project; Nkuwazi Forest).

By end of Year 5 , 4 exchange visits conducted

By  year 5, 30 % of new innovations adopted

Exchange Visit Reports

Progress Report

Stakeholders in learning sites collaborate with programme

Activity 3.6: Identify and promote new income generating activities (mushroom farming, beekeeping, soya bean production, PES, etc).

By end of year 4, 75% of hotspot households and enterprises implementing new IGA’s.

Progress Reports

Evaluation reports

Priorities and intervention sites agreed with stakeholders and local partners.

Activity 3.7: Train extension personnel and lead farmers in adaptive strategies targeted through participatory process.

By end of year 3, one ToT conducted for least 60 extension personnel and 15 lead farmers in each hotspot (150 in total).

Training reports

Willingness to participate in training

Activity 3.8: Establish demonstration sites of adaptive strategy technologies in each hotspot.

By end of year 3, 10 demonstration sites established and maintained.

By end of year 5, 25% of households in the hotspots adopt adaptive strategy technologies

Evaluation Reports

Evaluation Reports

Willingness of community to establishment of plots.

Activity 3.9 Pilot solar fish dryers for women processors and traders.

By end of year 1, one women group selected to test the dryers in each of the 11 landing sites around the Lake.

By end of year 2, fish post-harvest losses reduced by 15%.

By end of year 2, 1 market survey conducted to assess the acceptability to solar dried fish to determine feasibility of out-scaling the innovation.

Pilot Study Report


Survey report


Survey report

Willingness of traders/processors to adopt.

Activity 3.10: Provide business development support (training; microfinance, links to markets and technical information).

By end of Year 5, 15 business groups benefited from business support services.

Monitoring Reports
Business Plans

Stakeholders are willing to participate in training courses.

Activity 3.11: Establish a Fund through micro finance institutions to support small businesses involved in fuel-saving technologies.

By end of year 2, loans disbursed to 50 businesses involved in fuel-saving technologies.

By end of year 5, 95 % of annual recovery rate achieved.

Receipts (fund disbursement records)



NGO partner available to engage in revolving fund scheme

Activity 3.12: Facilitate communication of need for social services, resource access etc. to government and NGOs.

By end of year 5 at least 5 demand-driven social services including resource access provided to hotspot communities.



Government and NGOs continue to be responsive to community demands.

Output 4: Carbon sequestration throughout the Basin increased.

Activity 4.1: Identify potential funding mechanisms to support mitigation options through literature and policy review and expert consultation,

By end of Year 1, at least two appropriate funding mechanisms selected.



Activity 4.2: Conduct participatory feasibility analysis of best bet options for climate change mitigation actions in the basin (e.g. REDD, Plan Vivo, other conservation and ecosystem service payment options).

By end of Year 2, at least 2 best bet options for climate change mitigation actions selected and disseminated for implementation.

By end of year 2, 25% increase in awareness of best bet options.



Survey Report

Willingness of stakeholder to participate.

Activity 4.3. Conduct baseline vegetation survey to assess carbon stocks in hotspots.

By end of year 1, carbon stocks in all hotspots quantified.

Baseline Survey Report

No risk.

Activity 4.4. Pilot the implementation of preferred best bet mitigation options with strong livelihood benefits, on customary and private land.

By end of Year 3, 2 best bet mitigation options are validated and adapted for application in hotspots.

By end of Year 5, carbon storage increased by 50% on customary and private land in the basin.

Vulnerability mapping surveys, livelihood surveys, incremental carbon measurements

Carbon Inventory Report


Activity 4.5. Forest management needs addressed in critical habitats (steep slopes, river corridors) on public lands (e.g. forest reserves).

By end of project (year 5) Forest cover and tree biomass increased by >15% on 10 000 Ha of bare land with slope > 12 degrees and along 50 km of river corridors.

By end of year 2, 5 forest areas established and managed.

By end of year 5, 15 village Forest Areas established to meet fuel wood energy demands of households and enterprises.

By end of year 5, 50 hectares of river banks rehabilitated with vegetation cover.

By end of year 5, 25% increase in community participation in the collaborative management of protected forests areas.

By end of year 5, 15 forest blocks within forest reserves co-managed.

By year 5, frequency of fires reduced by 75 %.

By year 5, forest area (ha) destroyed by fire reduced by 75%.

By end of year 1, one insectary and soils laboratory rehabilitated for biodiversity monitoring of forested areas

By end of year 1, one fire base rehabilitated to improve monitoring of fires in forested areas.

Forest survey report

Progress report





Co-management Agreements
Progress report

Cooperation of stakeholders

Activity 4.6. Facilitate implementation of conservation agriculture among hotspot farmers.

By year 5, 20 % increase in Ha of farmland under conservation agriculture in the hotspots.

Survey Report


Activity 4.7: Introduce and promote energy-efficient fuel-saving technologies for households and institutional use within the Basin.

By end of year 5 at least 4 fuel-saving technologies introduced and adopted by 25% of households and 50 % of institutions

By end of year 5, 75% of women groups are using solar dryers and improved fish smoking kilns.



Willingness of people to adopt.

Activity 4.8: Raise awareness in communities and institutions outside of the Basin on how their energy choices (charcoal, provision of electricity service) has an impact on natural resource management practices within the Basin and contributes to community vulnerability to climate change.

By end of year 5, 25 % increase in the level of awareness of impacts of consumer choices on energy and natural resources


Radio episodes
Survey Report


Output 5. Monitoring and Evaluation system developed and implemented.

Activity 5.1: Set up a participatory monitoring and evaluation system

By end of Year 1, one participatory monitoring and evaluation system developed and functional

M & E Report

Institutions provide information

Activity 5.2: Develop monitoring indicators through participatory processes.

By end of Year 1, # of indicators developed

PRA reports

Revised management plans

Willingness of stakeholders to participate.

Activity 5.3: Conduct baseline surveys

  • Vegetation surveys
  • Livelihood Surveys
  • Biodiversity Survey

By end of year 1, # (all) baseline surveys conducted

Baseline survey reports


Activity 5.4: Monitor and evaluate programme activities.

By end of each year, key aspects affecting programme implementation identified and acted upon.

By year 3, one mid-term evaluation conducted.

By end of year 3, 75% of households and all programme partners are using the agreed set of indicators to monitor their performance.

By end of year 5, one external end of Programme evaluation conducted.

M & E Reports

Look-back study reports

Mid Term Evaluation Report

M & E reports.


End of Programme Evaluation Report